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Info K210 introduction
Quote:RISC-V (pronounced "risk-five") is an open-source hardware instruction set architecture (ISA) based on established reduced instruction set computer (RISC) principles.
In contrast to most ISAs, the RISC-V ISA is free and open-source and can be used royalty-free for any purpose, permitting anyone to design, manufacture and sell RISC-V chips and software. While not the first open-architecture ISA, it is significant because it is designed to be useful in a wide range of devices. The instruction set also has a substantial body of supporting software, which avoids a usual weakness of new instruction sets.
The project began in 2010 at the University of California, Berkeley, but many contributors are volunteers and industry workers outside the university.
The RISC-V ISA has been designed with small, fast, and low-power real-world implementations in mind, but without over-architecting for a particular microarchitecture style.
As of May 2017, version 2.2 of the userspace ISA is fixed and the privileged ISA is available as draft version 1.10.

Kendryte K210 is dual core 64-bit RISC-V processor.

Here are some features:
  • First competitive RISC-V chip, also fisrt competitive AI chip, released in Sep. 2018.
  • Built using advanced 28nm process, dual-core RISC-V 64bit IMAFDC, temperature range -40°C to 125°C
  • Low voltage, reduced power consumption compared to other systems with the same processing power
  • 3.3V/1.8V dual voltage IO support eliminates need for level shifters
  • On-chip large 8 MB high-speed SRAM, 400MHz frequency (can be overclocked up to to 800MHz).
  • KPU (Neural Network Processor) inside,  64 KPU which are 576bit width, supports convolution kernel. Offers 0.25TOPS@0.3W,400MHz, and when you overclock to 800MHz, it offers 0.5TOPS, meaning you can do object recognition 60fps@VGA.
    • Supports the fixed-point model that the mainstream training framework trains according to specific restriction rules
    • There is no direct limit on the number of network layers, and each layer of convolutional neural network parameters can be configured separately, including the number of input and output channels, and the input and output line width and column height
    • Support for 1x1 and 3x3 convolution kernels
    • Support for any form of activation function
    • The maximum supported neural network parameter size for real-time work is 5MiB to 5.9MiB
    • The maximum supported network parameter size when working in non-real time is (flash size - software size)
  • APU (Audio Processor),  support 8 mics, upto 192KHz sample rate, hardware FFT unit
    • Up to 8 channels of audio input data, ie 4 stereo channels
    • Simultaneous scanning pre-processing and beamforming for sound sources in up to 16 directions
    • Supports one active voice stream output
    • 16-bit wide internal audio signal processing
    • Support for 12-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 32-bit input data widths
    • Multi-channel direct raw signal output
    • Up to 192kHz sample rate
    • Built-in FFT unit supports 512-point FFT of audio data
    • Uses system DMAC to store output data in system memory
  • Flexible FPIOA (Programmable IO Array) maximises design flexibility, allows users to map 255 internal functions to 48 free IOs on the chip
    • Programmable IO function selection
    • 8 drive strength options for outputs
    • Selectable internal pull-up resistors
    • Selectable internal pull-down resistors
    • Schmitt trigger option for inputs
    • Slew rate control for outputs
    • Selectable internal input level
  • DVP camera and MCU LCD interface, you can connect an DVP camera, run your algorithm, and display on LCD.
    The DVP is a camera interface module with the following features:
    • Supports cameras with a DVP interface
    • Supports camera configuration using SCCB protocol
    • Maximum frame size 640x480
    • Supports YUV422 and RGB565 format image input
    • Can output images to both KPU and display
      • Output format to KPU: RGB888 or the Y component of YUV422 input
      • Output format to display: RGB565
    • Interrupt can be sent to CPU for start-of-frame or completion of frame image transmission

  • Many other hardware accelerators and peripherals: AES Accelerator, SHA256 Accelerator, FFT Accelerator (not APU's one), OTP, UART, WDT, IIC, SPI, I2S, TIMER, RTC, PWM, etc.
  • Machine Vision
    • Object Detection
    • Image Classification
    • Face Detection and Recognition
    • Obtaining size and coordinates of target in real time
    • Obtaining type of detected target in real time
  • Machine Hearing
    • Sound source orientation detection
    • Sound Field Imaging
    • Beamforming
    • Voice Wake-Up
    • Speech Recognition
  • Hybrid Audio/Vision Solution
    The Kendryte K210 combines machine vision and machine hearing to provide even more powerful features.
    In the application, both the sound source localization and the sound field imaging can be used to assist the machine vision to track the target, and the general target detection can obtain the target’s orientation and then assist the machine to perform the beamforming of the source.
    Additionally, the direction of the person can be obtained by the image transmitted from the camera, so that the microphone array is directed to the person by beamforming. At the same time, the direction of speech can be determined according to the microphone array, and the camera is rotated to point to the person.

Architecture Overview:

The K210 includes two 64-bit RISC-V CPU cores, each with a built-in independent FPU.
The primary functions of the K210 are machine vision and hearing, whichincludes the KPU for computing convolutional neural networks and an APU for processing microphone array inputs.
The K210 features a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Accelerator for high performance complex FFT calculations. As a result, for most machine learning algorithms, the K210 has high-performance processing power.
The K210 embeds AES and SHA256 algorithm accelerators to provide users with basic security features.
The K210 features high-performance, low-power SRAM and powerful DMA for superior data throughput.
K210 has a wide range of peripheral units: DVP, JTAG, OTP, FPIOA, GPIO, UART, SPI, RTC, I2S, I2C, WDT, Timer and PWM, for a large number of application scenarios.

[Image: Kendrite_K210.jpeg]

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